THE GOLDEN RIVER
SYSTEM ABUSE / CRASHES
Updates:  07/30/2017: Flash crash material added; Helios crash introduced in list; 777s engine incidents; 07/28/2017 787 list of incidents AVIATION CRASHES AND INCIDENTS Includes Boeing, Airbus and Others _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ IN THIS SECTION   Boeing crashes     Boeing other incidents     Non-Boeing crashes     Websites with crashes   Boeing craft - crashes  Pacific Western Airlines 314/Boeing 737-200  (02/11/1978)     Far Easter Air Transport/Boeing 737-200 (08/22/1981)     Cameroon Airlines/Boeing 737-200 (08/30/1984)     JAL 123/Boeing 747SR (08/12/1985)     United Airlines 585/Boeing 737-291 (03/03/1991)  US AIR 427/Boeing 737-300 (09/08/1994)   Sudan Airways/Boeing 737-200c series (07/09/2003) Flash Airlines 604/Boeing 737-300 (01/03/2004) Helios 522/Boeing 737-300 (08/14/2005) Boeing Other Flight Issues (ie, repair issues with almost-crashes)  Other Boeing Flight Issues    Pacific Western Airlines Flight 501/Boeing 737-275 (03/22/1984)     American Airlines 383/Boeing 767 (right engine uncontained failure with severe fire, aborted takeoff, 20 injured(10/2016) Singapore Airlines 368/Boeing 777-312ER  (engine oil leak, in flight turned back, on landing, right engine caught fire, all passengers evacuated with no injuries) (06/27/2016) Korean Air 2708/Boeing 777-300  (left engine “uncontained failure with substantial fire” aborted takeoff)  (05/27/2016) Southwest Airlines 812/Boeing 737-300 (lap joint/fuselage issue, emergency landing) (04/01/2011) Southwest Airlines 2294/Boeing 737-3HR (lap joint/fuselage issue, emergency landing)  (07/13/2009) Boeing 787 list of engine related incidents (2013 to 2017) Boeing 777 list of engine related incidents Boeing 767s and 9/11: United Airlines 175/Boeing 767-200 Boston (Logan International Airport) to Los Angeles (Lost Angeles International Airport) reported as crashed into South Tower; and American Airlines/Boeing 767 223ER Boston to Los Angeles, reported as crashed into North Tower Non-Boeing crashes (a few mentioned here if they seem applicable in some way):  American Airlines 587/Airbus A300-600 (11/12/2001) American Airlines 191/McDonnell Douglas DC10-10 (05/25/1979) United Airlines 232/DC-10 crash landed, catastrophic failure of tail-mounted engine causing loss of all flight controls;planed landed w/o conventional control; 111/296 died. (07/19/1989) Websites with lists of aircraft crashes and incidents: https://www.aeroinside.com http://www.airsafe.com https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_accidents_and_incidents_involving_commercial_aircraft _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note from The Golden RIver:  This section on airline crashes and related incidents is in no way comprehensive - several good websites exist with detailed lists of crashes elsewhere.  Rather, this section focuses on a few with varied levels of attention spent on articles that were generated by the incidents.  Notice more time is spent on engines on this website - both manufacturer corruption and crash-related incidents. Just remember many parts of a plane can go wrong, not just engines, lap joints and rudders, the subjects highlighted here.  We quickly discover highly disturbing information about how things can go wrong involving engines after just a few readings on crashes.  Things like engines falling off!  And explosions!  And fire!  The explosions are often caused by certain failures in internal engine parts and can initially be heard as a thump or bang.  The fires might start with an explosion, but problems are often compounded by materials which feed the fire like explosion/crash related fuel spills and dry combustible material off the plane itself, like from the nearby fuselage or wings. CRASHES - BOEING Airliner Crashes - Articles American Airlines 383/Boeing 767 CNN: At Chicago O'Hare, American Airlines 767 catches fire on runway.  By Steve Almasy, Jon Ostrower, Rene Marsh. (10/29/2016) http://www.cnn.com/2016/10/28/us/ohare-aircraft-incident/index.html Negroni (Christine) http://christinenegroni.com/engine-took-767-aa-flight-383-photos/ Excerpt:  The National Transportation Safety Board’s Lorenda Ward said the failure was in the engine’s second stage disk and Aviation Week reported that was a first-ever, though first stage engine failures have occurred a number of times including on another American Airlines 767 in 2006.   What seems to have caused the phenomenal fire damage on Flight 383 was debris penetrating the fuel tank,  providing a source of fuel to the fire. The engine spewed debris with such velocity, material was found a half a mile away according to Ward. http://christinenegroni.com/engine-took-767-aa-flight-383-photos/ UPI: American Airlines [383/ 767 catches fire at Chicago’s Ohare revives memories of ‘79 disaster https://www.upi.com/Top_News/US/2016/10/28/American-Airlines-767-catches-fire-at-Chicagos-OHare-revives-memories-of-79- disaster/8701477685781 JAL 123 Crash (August 12, 1985) Boeing 747SR FAA - Lessons Learned Note:  There is a lot of material worth reading on this page.  Here is a brief excerpt:  Improper Repair More than seven years prior to the accident, on June 2, 1978, the airplane experienced a severe tail strike incident during landing at Osaka, Japan. Several aft fuselage frames, skin, and the aft pressure bulkhead were substantially damaged, and 25 passengers were injured. At the time of the incident, the airplane had 16,200 hours and 12,300 cycles. The airline contracted to a Boeing Airplane-On-Ground (AOG) team to disposition the aircraft and perform the damage repair. http://lessonslearned.faa.gov/ll_main.cfm?TabID=4&LLID=16&LLTypeID=2 The Guardian: 524 killed in worst single air disasterUS to investigate crash of American-made Japanese Boeing 747.  By Harold Jackson (08/13/1985) https://www.theguardian.com/fromthearchive/story/0,,1017027,00.html Excerpt:  Two United States Government investigators were last night travelling to Japan in an effort to find the cause of the worst air crash involving a single aircraft.  Japan Air Lines said that 524 passengers and crew, including 21 non-Japanese, were feared killed when one of its Boeing 747 jets crashed into mountainous terrain north-west of Tokyo.  Flight 123, flying a domestic route from Tokyo to Osaka, apparently veered off course shortly after taking off for its 60-minute journey. It was hundreds of miles away from its planned route when it came down.  Early today, 70 paratroopers descended on ropes from helicopters to start hunting through the wreckage. But Defence ministry officials said there was no sign of survivors. About another 1,000 emergency workers were trying to reach the scene on foot. https://www.theguardian.com/fromthearchive/story/0,,1017027,00.html The Last Boeing Inspector:  Crashes because of rollerstamping http://www.thelastboeinginspector.com/crashes-because-of-rollerstamping.html LA Times:  747 Survivor Tells of Jet Breaking Up : Sections of Ceiling Fell; JAL Craft 'Weaved Wildly'. By Sam Jameson  (08/15/1985) http://articles.latimes.com/1985-08-15/news/mn-1597_1_tail-fin Japan Times: U.S. leaked crucial Boeing repair flaw that led to 1985 JAL jet crash: ex-officials.  BY Toyohiro Horikoshi (08/11/2015) http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2015/08/11/national/history/u-s-leaked-crucial-boeing-repair-flaw-led-1985-jal-jet-crash-ex- officials/ Telegraph: JAL 123 the crash that made outcasts of my children.  By Jeff Gilbert (08/12/2009) http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/6010716/Japan-Airlines-Flight-123-The-crash-that-made-outcasts-of-my-children.html Wikipedia: Japan Airlines Flight 123 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japan_Airlines_Flight_123  Youtube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QKENZWQKkz0 US AIR 427 Crash (September 8, 1994) Boeing 737-300.  Apparent cause of crash: rudder malfunction, went hard-over (See Seattle Times below for definition of hard-over).  Excerpt :The plaintiffs' lawyers were prepared to present evidence at trial that officials with Boeing and Parker-Hannifin Corp., the valve's manufacturer, were aware of rudder valve problems in October 1992 and failed to correct the problem, Smith said.   My thought is that this is a crash that should have never happened," Smith added.    http://www.corboydemetrio.com/newsroom-news-113 Chicago Tribune: Names and occupations of crash victims on US Air 427 (09/10/1994) Note: some possible trends - people in the same occupation, are noted here.  As a listed accident, we generally don’t look for trends of occupants, and like employers might just simply mean accidental correspondence or company- sponsored business trips.  These are just a few, that came immediately to attention, notice Dept. of Energy and PNC Bank have several.  There are several engineers, chemists, energy types and other scientists listed.  In the case of internationally based, anti-American conspiracy, a known plane defect could be a form of hidden sabotage to remove certain people or groups.  Sabotage could also be about competition between corporations.  Links between PNC bankers and scientists in this case would need to be questioned.  People “more in the know” might be able to see other connections between the occupants of this flight beyond this shallow, cursory observation found by merely going down the list of passengers and seeing their occupations. DOE:  Arrigoni, Thomas, 49, Department of Energy, McMurray, Pa.; Dellefield, Randall J., 37, Department of Energy, Morgantown, W.Va;  Evans, Robert, 52, Department of Energy manager, Venetia, Pa.  Heintz, Steven, 41, Department of Energy manager, Mars, Pa. Langan, William T., 57, Department of Energy, Morgantown, W.Va; Mayfield, Manville, 68, Department of Energy, Morgantown, W.Va.; McIlvried, Timothy, 32, Department of Energy, Library, Pa. Peters, William, 54, Department of Energy, Canonsburg, Pa. PNC Bank:  Flaherty, Kevin, 35, PNC Bank, Mars, Pa.; Lindstrom, Gerald R., 60, PNC Bank, Pittsburgh; Lynn, Kirk D., 26, PNC Bank; Santamaria, Frank, 37, PNC Bank, Pittsburgh Greensburg, Pa.;Stamos, Janet, 40, PNC Bank, Pittsburgh; Taylor, Jocelyn P., 35, PNC Bank, Pittsburgh; Garmhausen, Richard, 33, engineer, USX Corp., Bernard, Harry, 49, USX Corp., Pittsburgh; Pittsburgh;  Raykin, Eugene, 27, scientist, USX Corp., Monroevillle, Pa.; Center for Energy and Economic Development::  Ziska Michele, 36, marketing coordinator, Center for Energy and Economic Development, Bridgeville, Pa.; Wiles, Edwin, 50, Center for Energy and Economic Development, Pittsburgh http://articles.chicagotribune.com/1994-09-10/news/9409100136_1_usx-corp-ampco-pittsburgh-corp-chicago-area Corboy Demetrio:  Accords in '94 USAIR Crash Top $48 MILLION" Excerpt:  Four settlements totaling more than $48 million, including one for a record $25.2 million, have been reached in lawsuits arising from the 1994 crash of a USAir flight near Pittsburgh, plaintiff attorneys said…The settlements will be paid by insurers for The Boeing Co., the aircraft's manufacturer, and USAir Inc., Demetrio said.The National Transportation Safety Board earlier this year determined that rudder reversal" led to the crash when a malfunctioning rudder valve deflected the rudder in a direction opposite to the pilot's command, according to the plaintiffs' attorneys. The deflection caused the pilots to lose control of the plane, which spiraled to the ground, crashing into a ravine and bursting into flames.   The plaintiffs' lawyers were prepared to present evidence at trial that officials with Boeing and Parker-Hannifin Corp., the valve's manufacturer, were aware of rudder valve problems in October 1992 and failed to correct the problem, Smith said.   My thought is that this is a crash that should have never happened," Smith added. http://www.corboydemetrio.com/newsroom-news-113 Newsweek: The Mystery of USAIR 427.  By “Newsweek Staff.”  (09/18/1994) http://www.newsweek.com/mystery-usair-427-188302 Early conjectures as to why the plane went down.   Excerpt:  Investigators will clearly be looking for similarities between the Pittsburgh and Colorado Springs crashes. One potential culprit is what is known as the power control unit, a hydraulic system that governs the plane's rudder and elevators. The rudder is the vertical flap on the tail; it makes the airplane turn. The elevators are the horizontal flaps on a plane's rear wings; they make the aircraft rise or dive. It is unlikely that Flight 427 would have gone into so steep and sustained a dive without some malfunction of the elevator controls. Though there are clear differences between the two crashes, both 737s suffered an unexplained roll just moments before they began to dive. Another suspect is what are known as "thrust reversers" on the plane's jet engines. Thrust reversers are used to slow the plane after it has touched down. But NTSB officials said at least one of Flight 427's 12 thrust reversers had been deployed; if others had been deployed as well, they said, that could have had "catastrophic consequences" to the plane's stability. http://www.newsweek.com/mystery-usair-427-188302 NTSB: Uncontrolled Descent and Collision With Terrain, USAir Flight 427, Boeing 737-300, N513AU https://www.ntsb.gov/investigations/AccidentReports/Pages/AAR9901.aspx Excerpt:   Probable Cause:  The National Transportation Safety Board determines that the probable cause of the USAir flight 427 accident was a loss of control of the airplane resulting from the movement of the rudder surface to its blowdown limit. The rudder surface most likely deflected in a direction opposite to that commanded by the pilots as a result of a jam of the main rudder power control unit servo valve secondary slide to the servo valve housing offset from its neutral position and overtravel of the primary slide. https://www.ntsb.gov/investigations/AccidentReports/Pages/AAR9901.aspx New York TImes:  Crash of Flight 427: The Crash Site; 'A Horrifying Scene of Destruction' Leaves Emergency Crews Shaken.  By John Kifner (09/10/1994) http://www.nytimes.com/1994/09/10/us/crash-flight-427-crash-site-horrifying-scene-destruction-leaves-emergency-crews.html Post Gazette:  Two decades after Boeing 737 airline disaster, support group likely to disband. By Matthew P. Smith (2014) http://www.post-gazette.com/local/region/2014/09/07/USAir-Flight-427-20-years-later/stories/201409070272 SF Gate: Final Seconds on USAir Flight 427 / Pilots' desperate exclamations revealed in transcript. [note: Seattle Times article of 10/1996 also has transcript excerpt] By Alyssa Gabbay (01/24/1995) Very brief vocal utterances from pilot and co-pilot.  Early conjectures of what caused crash:  Excerpt: Among the areas to be examined is the possibility of a rudder malfunction. USAir has warned pilots of its Boeing 737s to watch out for spontaneous rudder movements during flights. The rudder, a large vertical tail slab, moves a plane left or right. http://www.sfgate.com/news/article/Final-Seconds-on-USAir-Flight-427-Pilots-3048057.php Seattle Times:  Pittsburgh disaster adds to 737 doubts:  A debate over safety has embroiled Boeing's 737. Today, a look at discoveries about the 737's rudder-control system and at Boeing's pressure to blame the pilots after the Pittsburgh 737 crash two years ago.  (10/29/1996) http://old.seattletimes.com/news/local/737/part03/ Excerpt: That's the moment investigators believe Flight 427's rudder moved suddenly to its extreme left - a movement known as a "hardover," which is not supposed to happen while a 737 is in the air - and locked in that position. In the next four seconds, the jet peeled off to the left, like a fighter plane in a World War II movie. Then it rolled upside down and began falling out of the darkening sky, nose pointed almost straight down. http://old.seattletimes.com/news/local/737/part03/ Wikipedia: US AIr Flight 427 Excerpt:  After the longest investigation in the history of the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), it was determined that the probable cause was that the aircraft's rudder malfunctioned and went hard-over in a direction opposite to that commanded by the pilots, causing the plane to enter an aerodynamic stall from which the pilots were unable to recover. All 132 people on board the aircraft were killed. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USAir_Flight_427 United Airlines 585 Crash (March 3, 1991) Boeing 737-291 Wikipedia: United Airlines Flight 585 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Airlines_Flight_585 Tailstrike: https://www.tailstrike.com/030391.htm New York TImes: Jetliner crash in Colorado kills all 25 people aboard http://www.nytimes.com/1991/03/04/us/jetliner-crash-in-colorado-kills-all-25-people-aboard.html Liveleak: https://www.liveleak.com/view?i=01b_1393869548 LA Times: http://articles.latimes.com/1991-03-05/news/mn-253_1_colorado-springs NTSB: https://www.ntsb.gov/news/press- releases/Pages/NTSB_adopts_revised_final_report_on_the_1991_crash_of_United_Airlines_Flight_585_in_Colorado_Springs_CO.;_calls.aspx Pacific Western Airlines Crash; Boeing 737-200  (02/11/1978) Airsafe http://www.airsafe.com/events/models/b737.htm Excerpt:   Pacific Western Airlines 737-200; Cranbrook Airport, Canada: The aircraft crashed after thrust reversers did not fully stow following a rejected landing that was executed in order to avoid a snowplow. The crash killed four of the crew members and 38 of the 44 passengers. http://www.airsafe.com/events/models/b737.htm Far Eastern Air Transport Crash (08/22/1981) Airsafe http://www.airsafe.com/events/models/b737.htm 22 August 1981; Far Eastern Air Transport 737-200; near Sanyi, Taiwan: The aircraft experienced in flight structural failure. The crash killed all six crew members and 104 passengers. http://www.airsafe.com/events/models/b737.htm Cameroon Airlines Crash; Boeing 737-200  (08/30/1984) Airsafe http://www.airsafe.com/events/models/b737.htm Excerpt: Douala, Cameroon: While on the ground, one of the engines had an uncontained failure which ruptured a fuel tank and started fire. Two of the 108 passengers were killed. http://www.airsafe.com/events/models/b737.htm Sudan Airways/Boeing 737 (07/2003) http://www.nytimes.com/2003/07/09/world/116-are-killed-in-plane-crash-in-sudan-a-small-boy-survives.html?mcubz=2 Flash Airlines 604/Boeing 737-300 -  (01/03/2004) All 142 passengers (133 of whom were French tourists) and all 6 crew killed, Egypt to Paris, crashed into Red Sea shortly after take- off  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flash_Airlines_Flight_604 http://aviationknowledge.wikidot.com/asi:flash-airlines-flight-604-spatial-disorientation https://www.tailstrike.com/030104.htm http://www.cbsnews.com/news/148-perish-in-egyptian-plane-crash/ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/3365721.stm https://www.liveleak.com/view?i=0f1_1234030685 Helios Airways 522/Boeing 737-300 All passengers and crew killed https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helios_Airways_Flight_522 BOEING OTHER flight Issues: On-ground destruction (like explosion/fire  before take-off on runway) or issue; Without a full crash; Without casualties, or with fewer casualties 787 List of Incidents Boeing’s much-touted 787 Dreamliners also raised concern this year after a lithium-ion battery caught fire on a plane parked in Boston. Another burning battery forced an emergency landing in Japan, USA Today reports. New York Daily News:  By Carol Kurvilla 07/06/2013 http://www.nydailynews.com/news/national/san-francisco-crash-latest-year-full-bad-news-boeing-article-1.1391993 Boeing 787-800 incidents involving engine related problems partial list from Aeroinside dot com.  Notice several of the issues were leaks or other warnings that required a shut down of one of the engines and a turn-back to the original airport or a diversion to another nearby airport.  An earlier article Aeroinside dot com https://www.aeroinside.com/incidents/type/b788/boeing-787-8-dreamliner Norwegian Air Shuttle/787-800 Dreamliner; engine oil leak prompted manual shut-off of engine, flight turn-back, landing/repair no incident, check reported as wrong reading about engine oil leak, no injuries (07/23/2017) (engine type Trent 1000) Norwegian Air Shuttle 787-800 engine shut down in flight because of technical warning, diversion, safe landing, no injuries.  (07/16/2017) (engine type Trent 1000) Norwegian Air Shuttle 787-800 engine oil quantity issue, engine manually shut down in flight, turn-back, safe landing, no injuries. (06/11/2017) (engine type Trent 1000) Thompson Airways 787-800 (GEnx) Shut left hand engine down, fire warnings seemed faulty later, safe landing, no injuries (06/102017) Norwegian 787-800 (Trent 1000) engine was climbing out of runway on way out, flight stopped after the right hand engine  emitted two loud bangs, streaks of flames and caused two jolts,engine immediate return landing, no injuries, people on ground confirmed bangs and smoke/flames observed from people on the plane (05/22/2017) Polish Airlines 787-800 (Trent 1000), turn-back, safe landing, no injuries (05/11/2017) All Nippon: engine vibrations (08/30/2016) All Nippon: was accelerating the engines for takeoff from Narita's runway 34L when the left hand engine (Trent 1000) failed with a loud bang prompting the crew to reject takeoff at low speed (about 20 knots). The aircraft returned to the apron, metal debris reportedly blades from the engine needed to be removed from the runway.08/14/2016 Air India engine shut down in flight (01/19/2015) British Airways engine shut down in flight (01/08/2015) Royal Jordanian: engine problem (12/16/2014) All Nippon: engine oil indication (10/06/2014) Thompson Airways engine shut down in flight (08/05/2014) Qatar engine problems 08/06/2014 All Nippon engine anti-ice failure 07/06/2014) JAL 787-800 engine shut down in flight (03/08/2014) United 787-800 engine oil, engine shut down (06/18/2013) United engine oil indication 787-800 (06/20/2013) JAL 787-800 engine anti-ice problem (06/11/2013) https://www.aeroinside.com/incidents/type/b788/boeing-787-8-dreamliner Boeing 777s list of engine related incidents Airsafe dot com: 777s http://www.airsafe.com/events/models/b777.htm British Airways 38/Boeing 777-200ER 01/17/2008 Right engine of ceased responding to autothrottle commands for increased power and instead the power reduced on both engines. This reduction led to a loss of airspeed and the aircraft touched about1000 feet (330m) short of the runway.This was the first serious accident for the 777 since it began commercial service in 1995….The loss of engine control was due to a fuel system blockage caused by ice that formed in the fuel system. British Airways 2276/Boeing 777-200 (09/08/2015) Left engine apparently failed and caught fire prior to takeoff. There was evidence of an uncontained fairlure of the left engine and pylon, including multiple breaches of the engine case in the area around the high pressure compressor. http://www.airsafe.com/events/models/b777.htm British Airtours Flight 28M/Boeing 737-236 (08/22/1985)  Engine issue: take-off aborted due to engine failure Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_Airtours_Flight_28M The Guardian: https://www.theguardian.com/world/1985/aug/23/transport.uk Korean Air https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korean_Air_Flight_2708 American Airlines/Boeing 767-223ER (06/02/2006) Engine problems - Maintenance run with crew - Engine type (GE) CF6-80A No. 1 engine lag, rupture/burst after grounded and tested NTSB dot gov: Excerpt:  On June 2, 2006, an American Airlines Boeing 767-223(ER), N330AA, equipped with General Electric (GE) CF6-80A engines experienced an uncontained failure1 of the high pressure.  Turbine (HPT) stage 1 disk2  in the No. 1 (left) engine during a high-power ground run for maintenance at Los Angeles International Airport (LAX), Los Angeles, California (see figure 1 for a diagram of a GE CF6-80A engine). The three maintenance personnel on board the airplane as well as the observer on the ground were not injured. Both engines and the airplane sustained substantial damage https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-recs/recletters/A06_60_64.pdf Aviation-Safety dot net: Excerpt:  American Airlines Boeing 767 N330AA flew as flight AA201 from New York-JFK (JFK) to Los Angeles (LAX). During a step climb from FL360 to FL380 en route to LAX, the pilots noted that the No. 1 engine was lagging the right engine by about 2 percent. The flight landed at LAX at 09:37. After the passengers had disembarked, the plane was towed to hangar no. 2 and was parked outside. Maintenance personnel were going to conducting a ground run to troubleshoot the reported discrepancy. Several engine runups to maximum power were performed on both engines. Then they did two runups to max power of just the no. 1 engine. When retarding the throttle to idle, the engine experienced an uncontained rupture of the high pressure turbine (HPT) stage 1 disk. Debris punctured the fuselage and fell onto adjacent runway and taxiways. Runway 25R and Taxiways B and C were closed for several hours until the investigation and collection of the debris could be accomplished. The engine caught fire and the plane sustained significant damage to the left wing, fuselage, and tail section. Probable Cause:  PROBABLE CAUSE: "The HPT stage 1 disk failed from an intergranular fatigue crack because of GE's inadequate design of the CF6-80 series HPT stage 1 disk. The inadequate design of the disk resulted in a high stress area in the blade slot bottom aft corner that was at or nearly at the material's capability so that there was no damage tolerance such that a small dent could cause a crack to initiate and propagate to failure. https://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=20060602-0 Pacific Western Airlines Flight 501/Boeing 737-275 03/22/1984 (problem on takeoff - faulty compressor disc, caused fire) From Wikipedia (below): The fire was attributed to a faulty compressor disc that blew apart, rupturing the fuel tanks. This incident was similar to the cause of the British Airtours Flight 28M disaster that claimed 55 lives in 1985.  27 Injuries (5 serious), no fatalities. Wikipedia: Pacific Western Airlines Flight 501 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pacific_Western_Airlines_Flight_501 ASN/Aviation Safety Network Pacific Western Airlines Flight 501 Boeing 737-275 https://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19840322-0 Non-Boeing crashes (a few mentioned here if they seem applicable in some way) Airbus American Airlines Flight 587/Airbus A300-600 11/12/2001: (full+ fatalities) (reason given for crash: vertical stabilizer associated with rudder snapped off - from overuse of rudder; 2 engines separated from aircraft) From Wikipedia: Terrorism was officially ruled out as the cause by the National Transportation Safety Board, which instead attributed the disaster to the first officer's overuse of rudder controls in response to wake turbulence, or jet wash, from a Japan Airlines Boeing 747-400 that took off minutes before it. According to the NTSB, this aggressive use of the rudder controls by the co-pilot caused the vertical stabilizer to snap off the plane. The plane's two engines also separated from the aircraft before it hit the ground WND: Flight 587 was no accident:  http://mobile.wnd.com/2001/11/11721/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Airlines_Flight_587 McDonnell Douglas (later merged with Boeing in 1997)   American AIrllnes Flight 191/McDonnell Douglas DC10-10; 05/25/1979 Attributed to faulty maintenance at American Airlines: left engine No. 1 fell off shortly after take-off; the issue is associated with pylons and hardpoint mountings.  A hardpoint in this case is where the engine is attached on the wing. A pylon is an adaptor between the plane itself and the object being carried (the engine). Wikipedia: American Airlines Flight 191 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Airlines_Flight_191 Chicago Tribune:American Airlines Flight 191 still haunts. By Cory Franklin (05/24/2015) http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/opinion/commentary/ct-american-airlines-ohare-crash-flight-191-hospital-perspec-0525- jm-20150522-story.html Excerpt:  Suddenly, as the massive jet departed the runway, its left engine fell off, disabling critical flight systems. The plane rolled and quickly plummeted to Earth, igniting its full jet fuel tanks, creating a huge explosion and fireball visible for miles in the azure sky. On the ground, the grisly inferno resembled a battlefield.  Except for 9/11, the crash of 191 remains the worst air disaster in American history — all 271 people on the plane and two people on the ground were killed instantly. Almost all were burned beyond recognition. http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/opinion/commentary/ct-american-airlines-ohare-crash-flight-191-hospital-perspec-0525- jm-20150522-story.html
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